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PM Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan


Why is it in the news?

  • On the occasion of Janjatiya Gaurav Divas, the Prime Minister has unveiled the PM Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan, a significant initiative aimed at addressing the needs and ensuring justice for vulnerable tribal groups.
  • Aimed at ensuring last-mile welfare scheme delivery and protection for Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).
  • Part of the Visksit Bharat Sankalp Yatra, a nationwide program to reach out to all villages and include eligible beneficiaries in central schemes.

Janjatiya Gaurav Divas

  • Declared on 15th November by the Government of India.
  • Dedicated to the memory of brave tribal freedom fighters.
  • Commemorates the birth anniversary of Sri Birsa Munda, revered as Bhagwan by tribal communities.

 

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Originally categorized as Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) by the Dhebar Commission in 1973.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 In 1975, 52 tribal groups were identified as PTGs, and in 1993, 23 more groups were added to the list, which later became PVTGs.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 PVTGs are a more vulnerable subgroup among India’s tribal groups.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Characteristics include primitive traits, geographical isolation, low literacy, zero to negative population growth, and backwardness.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Often rely on hunting for food and have a pre-agricultural level of technology.

 

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Need for directing more development funds towards PVTGs due to the advantage taken by more developed tribal groups.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Odisha has the largest population of PVTGs, followed by Madhya Pradesh, according to the 2011 Census.

 

PM PVTG Development Mission

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Aims to provide basic facilities such as road and telecom connectivity, electricity, housing, clean drinking water, sanitation, education, health, nutrition, and sustainable livelihood opportunities to areas inhabited by PVTGs.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Involves the coordination of several ministries to implement development projects.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Includes schemes like Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awas Yojana, Jal Jeevan Mission, among others.

 

Bhagwan Birsa Munda

 

Early Life

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Indian freedom fighter, religious leader, and folk hero from the Munda Tribe.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Born on November 15, 1875, in Ulihatu, which is now in the Khunti district of Jharkhand.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Studied Hindu religious teachings, ancient scriptures, Ramayana, and Mahabharata.

 

Founder of New Religion (Birsait)

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Established a new religion promoting belief in One God and a return to original tribal religious beliefs.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Attracted followers from the Munda and Oraon communities, challenging British conversion efforts.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Preached strong anti-British sentiments and organized tribal guerrilla armies against the British Raj.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Revered as ‘Dharti Abba’ or ‘Father of Earth’ by his followers.

 

Munda Rebellion (Ulgulan)

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Tribal movement led by Birsa Munda against British oppression.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Aimed to establish Munda Raj (self-governance).

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Used traditional symbols and language to mobilize people and urged them to resist “dikus” (outsiders, including the British, moneylenders, and traders).

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Attacked symbols of outsiders, such as police stations and churches, and raided the property of moneylenders and zamindars.

 

Arrest and Death

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Birsa Munda was arrested by the British in March 1900 while he was with his tribal guerrilla army in the Jamkopai forest in Chakradharpur (Jharkhand).

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 He died of cholera in jail at the age of 25.

 

Outcomes of the Rebellion

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 The British introduced the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act in 1908, prohibiting the transfer of tribal land to non-tribals (Dikus).

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 The British adopted a more lenient attitude toward the religious beliefs and practices of India’s tribal communities.

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