Why is it in the news?
- On the occasion of Janjatiya Gaurav Divas, the Prime Minister has unveiled the PM Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan, a significant initiative aimed at addressing the needs and ensuring justice for vulnerable tribal groups.
- Aimed at ensuring last-mile welfare scheme delivery and protection for Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).
- Part of the Visksit Bharat Sankalp Yatra, a nationwide program to reach out to all villages and include eligible beneficiaries in central schemes.
Janjatiya Gaurav Divas
- Declared on 15th November by the Government of India.
- Dedicated to the memory of brave tribal freedom fighters.
- Commemorates the birth anniversary of Sri Birsa Munda, revered as Bhagwan by tribal communities.
|Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)|
· Originally categorized as Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) by the Dhebar Commission in 1973.
· In 1975, 52 tribal groups were identified as PTGs, and in 1993, 23 more groups were added to the list, which later became PVTGs.
· PVTGs are a more vulnerable subgroup among India’s tribal groups.
· Characteristics include primitive traits, geographical isolation, low literacy, zero to negative population growth, and backwardness.
· Often rely on hunting for food and have a pre-agricultural level of technology.
· Need for directing more development funds towards PVTGs due to the advantage taken by more developed tribal groups.
· Odisha has the largest population of PVTGs, followed by Madhya Pradesh, according to the 2011 Census.
PM PVTG Development Mission
· Aims to provide basic facilities such as road and telecom connectivity, electricity, housing, clean drinking water, sanitation, education, health, nutrition, and sustainable livelihood opportunities to areas inhabited by PVTGs.
· Involves the coordination of several ministries to implement development projects.
· Includes schemes like Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awas Yojana, Jal Jeevan Mission, among others.
|Bhagwan Birsa Munda |
· Indian freedom fighter, religious leader, and folk hero from the Munda Tribe.
· Born on November 15, 1875, in Ulihatu, which is now in the Khunti district of Jharkhand.
· Studied Hindu religious teachings, ancient scriptures, Ramayana, and Mahabharata.
Founder of New Religion (Birsait)
· Established a new religion promoting belief in One God and a return to original tribal religious beliefs.
· Attracted followers from the Munda and Oraon communities, challenging British conversion efforts.
· Preached strong anti-British sentiments and organized tribal guerrilla armies against the British Raj.
· Revered as ‘Dharti Abba’ or ‘Father of Earth’ by his followers.
Munda Rebellion (Ulgulan)
· Tribal movement led by Birsa Munda against British oppression.
· Aimed to establish Munda Raj (self-governance).
· Used traditional symbols and language to mobilize people and urged them to resist “dikus” (outsiders, including the British, moneylenders, and traders).
· Attacked symbols of outsiders, such as police stations and churches, and raided the property of moneylenders and zamindars.
Arrest and Death
· Birsa Munda was arrested by the British in March 1900 while he was with his tribal guerrilla army in the Jamkopai forest in Chakradharpur (Jharkhand).
· He died of cholera in jail at the age of 25.
Outcomes of the Rebellion
· The British introduced the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act in 1908, prohibiting the transfer of tribal land to non-tribals (Dikus).
· The British adopted a more lenient attitude toward the religious beliefs and practices of India’s tribal communities.