PM Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan

By Amigos IAS

Why is it in the news?

  • On the occasion of Janjatiya Gaurav Divas, the Prime Minister has unveiled the PM Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan, a significant initiative aimed at addressing the needs and ensuring justice for vulnerable tribal groups.
  • Aimed at ensuring last-mile welfare scheme delivery and protection for Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).
  • Part of the Visksit Bharat Sankalp Yatra, a nationwide program to reach out to all villages and include eligible beneficiaries in central schemes.

 Janjatiya Gaurav Divas

  • Declared on 15th November by the Government of India.
  • Dedicated to the memory of brave tribal freedom fighters.
  • Commemorates the birth anniversary of Sri Birsa Munda, revered as Bhagwan by tribal communities.


Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)

·       Originally categorized as Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) by the Dhebar Commission in 1973.

·       In 1975, 52 tribal groups were identified as PTGs, and in 1993, 23 more groups were added to the list, which later became PVTGs.

·       PVTGs are a more vulnerable subgroup among India’s tribal groups.

·       Characteristics include primitive traits, geographical isolation, low literacy, zero to negative population growth, and backwardness.

·       Often rely on hunting for food and have a pre-agricultural level of technology.


·       Need for directing more development funds towards PVTGs due to the advantage taken by more developed tribal groups.

·       Odisha has the largest population of PVTGs, followed by Madhya Pradesh, according to the 2011 Census.


PM PVTG Development Mission

·       Aims to provide basic facilities such as road and telecom connectivity, electricity, housing, clean drinking water, sanitation, education, health, nutrition, and sustainable livelihood opportunities to areas inhabited by PVTGs.

·       Involves the coordination of several ministries to implement development projects.

·       Includes schemes like Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awas Yojana, Jal Jeevan Mission, among others.


Bhagwan Birsa Munda


Early Life

·       Indian freedom fighter, religious leader, and folk hero from the Munda Tribe.

·       Born on November 15, 1875, in Ulihatu, which is now in the Khunti district of Jharkhand.

·       Studied Hindu religious teachings, ancient scriptures, Ramayana, and Mahabharata.


Founder of New Religion (Birsait)

·       Established a new religion promoting belief in One God and a return to original tribal religious beliefs.

·       Attracted followers from the Munda and Oraon communities, challenging British conversion efforts.

·       Preached strong anti-British sentiments and organized tribal guerrilla armies against the British Raj.

·       Revered as ‘Dharti Abba’ or ‘Father of Earth’ by his followers.


Munda Rebellion (Ulgulan)

·       Tribal movement led by Birsa Munda against British oppression.

·       Aimed to establish Munda Raj (self-governance).

·       Used traditional symbols and language to mobilize people and urged them to resist “dikus” (outsiders, including the British, moneylenders, and traders).

·       Attacked symbols of outsiders, such as police stations and churches, and raided the property of moneylenders and zamindars.


Arrest and Death

·       Birsa Munda was arrested by the British in March 1900 while he was with his tribal guerrilla army in the Jamkopai forest in Chakradharpur (Jharkhand).

·       He died of cholera in jail at the age of 25.


Outcomes of the Rebellion

·       The British introduced the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act in 1908, prohibiting the transfer of tribal land to non-tribals (Dikus).

·       The British adopted a more lenient attitude toward the religious beliefs and practices of India’s tribal communities.

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