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Mount Etna


Why is it in the news?

  • The recent eruptions at Mount Etna have led to flight cancellations at nearby airports.
  • Mount Etna is Europe’s most active volcano and one of the largest in the world.
  • Recorded volcanic activity at Mount Etna dates back to 1500 B.C., and it has erupted more than 200 times.

About Volcano

  • Volcanoes are openings or vents where lava, tephra (small rocks), and steam erupt onto the Earth’s surface.
  • They can be on land or in the ocean and usually form mountains from layers of rock, ash, or other materials.
  • Volcanoes can be classified as active, dormant, or extinct.
  • Active: Recently erupted or expected to erupt soon.
  • Dormant: No recent eruptions but might erupt in the future.
  • Extinct: Unlikely to erupt again.

 

Types of Volcanoes

  • Four main types of volcanoes: Cinder cones; Composite or stratovolcanoes; Shield volcanoes; and Lava domes.
  • The type depends on the lava flow characteristics and their impact on the volcano and its surroundings.

 

How Volcanoes Erupt

  • Eruption characteristics depend on magma composition (silica content) and gas content.
  • High silica magma is thick and leads to explosive eruptions.
  • Low silica magma is thin and results in less explosive eruptions.
  • Bubbles form in magma with lots of gas, making eruptions more explosive.
  • Erupted magma is called

 

Effects of Volcanism

  • On the Environment: Creation of volcanic landforms, impact on climate and weather patterns, habitat destruction, introduction of new species, and formation of new ecosystems.
  • Health Threats: Suffocation, respiratory diseases, burns, skin irritations, food and water contamination, and disruption of basic services.
  • Scientists can predict volcanic eruptions hours or days in advance using seismographic data from earthquakes and tremors as precursors.

 

Volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Many active volcanoes are located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, including New Zealand, Southeast Asia, Japan, and the western Americas.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 About 90% of worldwide earthquakes occur in this region.

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