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Participation of Imprisoned MPs in Parliamentary Proceedings: Legal Framework and Challenges


In a surprising turn of events, two jailed individuals on terror charges have been elected to the Lok Sabha: radical Sikh preacher Amritpal Singh and terror financing accused Engineer Rashid. Their election has sparked major legal and constitutional questions about whether they can attend parliamentary sessions. Therefore it is imperative for us to examine the legal precedents, statutory rights, and potential challenges they might encounter.

 The Right to Contest Elections

Legal Framework

  • Section 8(3) of the RPA states that if a person is convicted and sentenced to at least two years in prison, they cannot contest elections for six years after their release. However, this rule does not apply to undertrials, who are people not yet convicted.
  • This principle is rooted in the Representation of the People Act, 1951 (RP Act), which disqualifies individuals only after they have been convicted of certain offenses and sentenced to imprisonment for two or more years.
  • A person in prison or police custody cannot vote according to Section 62(5) of the Representation of the People Act (RPA).
  • However, a 2013 amendment ensures that such individuals are still considered electors if their names are on the electoral rolls.
  • This change was made to counter a Supreme Court ruling from July 10, 2023, which said that people in jail or police custody could not contest elections because they lost their status as electors.
  • The amendment now allows these individuals to contest elections, even though they cannot vote.

Historical Precedents

  • Historical precedents, such as the case of George Fernandes, illustrate that individuals in judicial custody can indeed contest and win elections.
  • Fernandes was imprisoned during the Emergency in India but managed to secure a seat in the Lok Sabha. His supporters campaigned on his behalf, and he attended Parliament after obtaining court permission.

The Right to Vote vs. The Right to Be Elected

Statutory Rights

  • The Supreme Court of India has differentiated between the right to vote and the right to be elected, categorizing both as statutory rights rather than fundamental rights.
  • This distinction allows Parliament to regulate these rights through legislation. Section 62 of the RP Act, for instance, prohibits prisoners from voting but does not prevent them from running for office unless they have been convicted.

Supreme Court Rulings

  • In 1997, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of Section 62(5) of the RP Act, which bars incarcerated individuals from voting.
  • The court reasoned that this restriction is justified to maintain the integrity of the electoral process and prevent individuals with criminal backgrounds from influencing elections.
  • In Shibu Soren vs. Dayanand Sahay & Ors (2001), the Supreme Court said the right to run for office is important. Any ban on running for office must be practical and aimed at preventing misuse of power.
  • In K Prabhakaran vs. P Jayarajan (2005), the Supreme Court said that according to Section 8(3) of the RPA, a person can only be disqualified from contesting elections after being convicted and sentenced. Until then, they are considered innocent and can still participate in elections
  • In Lily Thomas vs. Union of India (2013), the Supreme Court ruled that politicians convicted of serious crimes and given two years or more in prison would lose their seats immediately, without a three-month window for appeal.

Participation in Parliamentary Sessions

Seeking Court Permission

  • For Engineer Rashid and Amritpal Singh to attend parliamentary sessions, they must obtain court permission each time they wish to leave jail.
  • The Speaker of the Lok Sabha will send invitations to the respective jail superintendents, who will then inform the court and seek the necessary permissions.

Security Arrangements

  • If granted permission, strict security protocols will be implemented to escort the jailed MPs to Parliament.
  • This includes restrictions on their use of cell phones and interactions with others, as well as the involvement of high-ranking police officers in their escort.

Legislative Procedures

  • Once inside the House, the MPs can take their oath and participate in parliamentary proceedings.
  • However, their continued absence due to incarceration requires them to communicate with the Speaker, who will refer their cases to the House Committee on Absence of Members.
  • The committee will then recommend whether the MPs should be allowed to remain absent, and the recommendation will be put to a vote in the House.

Potential Disqualification

Article 101(4) of the Constitution

  • According to Article 101(4) of the Indian Constitution, MPs who are absent from all meetings of the House for a period of 60 days without permission can have their seats declared vacant.
  • This provision applies irrespective of the reason for their absence, including incarceration.

RP Act Provisions

  • Section 8 of the RP Act disqualifies individuals from contesting elections if they are convicted of certain offenses and sentenced to imprisonment for two or more years.
  • However, the Election Commission of India has the authority under Section 11 to reduce or remove the period of disqualification, as seen in the case of Sikkim Chief Minister Prem Singh Tamang.

The Broader Implications for Democracy

  1. Balancing Rights and Security
  • The cases of Engineer Rashid and Amritpal Singh bring to the forefront the challenge of balancing individual rights with national security concerns.
  • Allowing individuals facing serious criminal charges to contest elections upholds the democratic principle of presumed innocence until proven guilty.
  • However, their continued presence in the legislative process while under trial poses potential risks, necessitating stringent security protocols and oversight.
  1. Public Perception and Trust in the Electoral System
  • The election of candidates with pending criminal charges can impact public perception and trust in the electoral system.
  • Voters may question the integrity of a process that allows individuals with serious allegations to represent them.
  • This concern is particularly acute in cases involving charges related to terrorism or severe financial misconduct, as these crimes strike at the heart of public safety and economic stability.
  1. The Role of the Judiciary
  • The judiciary plays a crucial role in mediating between the rights of the accused and the interests of the state.
  • In the cases of Rashid and Singh, courts are tasked with evaluating requests for temporary release to attend parliamentary sessions.
  • The judiciary must weigh the legal rights of the MPs against potential risks, making each decision a balancing act that can set important precedents for future cases.
  1. Legislative Reforms and Accountability
  • The election of incarcerated individuals also underscores the need for potential legislative reforms.
  • While the RP Act provides a framework for disqualification post-conviction, there is an ongoing debate about whether stricter measures should be implemented for those with pending criminal charges.
  • Such reforms could include more rigorous scrutiny of candidates’ backgrounds or amendments to the law that address the specific challenges posed by accused individuals seeking public office.

Comparative Perspectives

International Practices

  • Examining how other democracies handle similar situations can provide valuable insights.
  • For instance, in the United States, the legal framework allows individuals who are under indictment but not yet convicted to run for office, though public opinion often plays a significant role in their electoral prospects.
  • In contrast, some European countries have stricter regulations that bar individuals facing serious criminal charges from contesting elections, reflecting a more precautionary approach to safeguarding public office.


Ethical Considerations

Representation and Responsibility

  • The ethical implications of allowing jailed individuals to serve as MPs are significant.
  • Elected representatives have a duty to their constituents, which includes being present to debate and vote on legislation.
  • The physical absence of MPs due to incarceration raises questions about their ability to fulfill these responsibilities effectively.
  • This dilemma touches on the broader issue of what constitutes effective representation and how it can be ensured in all circumstances.

Integrity in Politics

  • The participation of individuals facing serious charges in the legislative process also raises questions about the integrity of the political system.
  • Maintaining high standards of ethical conduct is crucial for preserving public trust in governance.
  • Therefore, ensuring that elected officials uphold these standards, even while under trial, is essential for the credibility of the political system.

Potential Outcomes and Future course

 Legal and Procedural Adjustments

  • In the immediate future, the cases will require careful legal and procedural adjustments.
  • The courts will need to establish clear guidelines for granting temporary release for parliamentary duties, ensuring that security concerns are adequately addressed while respecting the MPs’ rights to participate in legislative processes.

Long-term Legislative Changes

  • In the Long-term, these cases may prompt legislative changes aimed at refining the criteria for disqualification and participation in elections.
  • Potential amendments could include stricter pre-trial disqualification measures or enhanced scrutiny of candidates’ criminal backgrounds.
  • Such changes would need to balance the principles of fairness and due process with the necessity of maintaining a clean and trustworthy political system.

Strengthening Democratic Institutions

  • Ultimately, the goal should be to strengthen democratic institutions to handle complex scenarios involving accused individuals.
  • This includes not only legislative reforms but also enhancing the capacity of the judiciary and law enforcement agencies to manage such cases efficiently and transparently.
  • By doing so, the system can better navigate the tension between individual rights and collective security, ensuring that democratic processes remain robust and credible.


The election of jailed MPs Engineer Rashid and Amritpal Singh presents a complex legal scenario. While their right to contest elections and participate in parliamentary sessions is upheld, their ability to physically attend these sessions hinges on court permissions and stringent security measures. Their continued membership in the Lok Sabha will depend on their ability to navigate these legal and procedural hurdles, as well as the outcomes of their ongoing trials. It also highlights the need for potential legislative reforms to address the complexities of allowing individuals facing serious charges to serve as elected representatives. As India navigates these challenges, the cases of Rashid and Singh will serve as critical test cases, offering valuable lessons for the future of its democratic processes.

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