National Education Policy 2020

By Amigos IAS

Why is it in the news?

  • Recently, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Education has raised concerns regarding the implementation of the Multiple Entry and Multiple Exit (MEME) system proposed in NEP 2020 in its report titled ‘Implementation of the National Education Policy, 2020 in Higher Education.’

About Multiple Entry and Multiple Exit (MEME) System

  • NEP 2020 introduces the concept of MEME in higher education, allowing students flexibility in their educational pathways.
  • The committee questions the suitability of MEME in India, citing the country’s high population and unpredictable student enrolment patterns.
  • Concerns are raised about the impact of MEME on the pupil-teacher ratio and difficulties in tracking student entry and exit.
  • Uneven geographical distribution of higher educational institutions in India poses obstacles to MEME implementation, especially in rural areas.
  • The committee notes that institutions have not provided clear solutions to address these challenges.
  • While expressing reservations, the committee recognizes that MEME offers students greater flexibility and choice in their educational journeys.
  • It suggests the need for comprehensive guidelines, eligibility criteria, credit transfer mechanisms, and a standardized Credit Accumulation and Transfer (CAT) system for MEME.
  • The committee advises the Union Education Ministry to engage in wider consultations with universities, regulatory bodies, and stakeholders to find solutions for MEME implementation challenges.
  • The panel seeks to address the difficulties faced in implementing MEME and recommends regular updates to the committee.
  • Further, the Student and teacher organizations express concerns that MEME might devalue degrees and result in a surplus of cheap labor in the job market.
  • The Kerala government decided not to implement MEME, opting for multiple entry but allowing exit either after three years with a degree or after four years with an honors degree.
National Education Policy

·       Aimed at transforming the Indian education system from school to college level.

·       Aims to make India a global knowledge superpower.

·       Renaming of the Ministry of Human Resource Development to the Ministry of Education.

·       The third major revamp of the education framework since independence, following policies in 1968 and 1986. 

School Education:

·       Universalization of education from preschool to secondary level with 100% Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) by 2030.

·       Bringing 2 crore out-of-school children back into the mainstream through open schooling.

·       Replacing the current 10+2 system with a new 5+3+3+4 curricular structure.

·       Incorporating the age group of 3-6 years into school curriculum.

·       Board examinations at Class 10 and 12 made easier, focusing on core competencies.

·       New accreditation framework and independent authority for school governance.

·       Emphasis on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy, vocational education from Class 6, and mother tongue/regional language teaching up to Grade 5.

·       Introduction of a 360-degree Holistic Progress Card for student assessment.

·       Formulation of a comprehensive National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (NCFTE) 2021.

·       By 2030, a 4-year integrated B.Ed. degree to be the minimum qualification for teaching.

Higher Education:

·       Raising Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in higher education to 50% by 2035.

·       Adding 3.5 crore seats in higher education.

·       Introduction of flexible 3 or 4-year undergraduate programs with multiple exit options.

·       Discontinuation of M.Phil courses and promoting interdisciplinary courses.

·       Establishment of an Academic Bank of Credits for credit transfer.

·       Creation of Multidisciplinary Education and Research Universities (MERUs) to match global standards.

·       Formation of the National Research Foundation to promote research.

·       Establishment of the Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) as a single regulatory body for higher education.

Other Changes:

·       Creation of the National Educational Technology Forum (NETF) to enhance technology use in education.

·       Establishment of the National Assessment Centre- ‘PARAKH’ for student assessment.

·       Encouragement for foreign universities to set up campuses in India.

·       Focus on Gender Inclusion Fund, Special Education Zones, and public investment reaching 6% of GDP.


Constitutional and Legal Framework:

·       Constitutional provisions in Article 45 and Article 39 (f) for state-funded and equitable education.

·       Shift of education to the Concurrent List via the 42nd Amendment in 1976.

·       Enforceable right to education under Article 21-A through the 86th Amendment in 2002.

·       RTE Act, 2009 mandates primary education for children aged 6 to 14.

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