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National Education Policy 2020

Why is it in the news?

  • Recently, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Education has raised concerns regarding the implementation of the Multiple Entry and Multiple Exit (MEME) system proposed in NEP 2020 in its report titled ‘Implementation of the National Education Policy, 2020 in Higher Education.’

About Multiple Entry and Multiple Exit (MEME) System

  • NEP 2020 introduces the concept of MEME in higher education, allowing students flexibility in their educational pathways.
  • The committee questions the suitability of MEME in India, citing the country’s high population and unpredictable student enrolment patterns.
  • Concerns are raised about the impact of MEME on the pupil-teacher ratio and difficulties in tracking student entry and exit.
  • Uneven geographical distribution of higher educational institutions in India poses obstacles to MEME implementation, especially in rural areas.
  • The committee notes that institutions have not provided clear solutions to address these challenges.
  • While expressing reservations, the committee recognizes that MEME offers students greater flexibility and choice in their educational journeys.
  • It suggests the need for comprehensive guidelines, eligibility criteria, credit transfer mechanisms, and a standardized Credit Accumulation and Transfer (CAT) system for MEME.
  • The committee advises the Union Education Ministry to engage in wider consultations with universities, regulatory bodies, and stakeholders to find solutions for MEME implementation challenges.
  • The panel seeks to address the difficulties faced in implementing MEME and recommends regular updates to the committee.
  • Further, the Student and teacher organizations express concerns that MEME might devalue degrees and result in a surplus of cheap labor in the job market.
  • The Kerala government decided not to implement MEME, opting for multiple entry but allowing exit either after three years with a degree or after four years with an honors degree.
National Education Policy

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Aimed at transforming the Indian education system from school to college level.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Aims to make India a global knowledge superpower.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Renaming of the Ministry of Human Resource Development to the Ministry of Education.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 The third major revamp of the education framework since independence, following policies in 1968 and 1986.

School Education:

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Universalization of education from preschool to secondary level with 100% Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) by 2030.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Bringing 2 crore out-of-school children back into the mainstream through open schooling.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Replacing the current 10+2 system with a new 5+3+3+4 curricular structure.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Incorporating the age group of 3-6 years into school curriculum.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Board examinations at Class 10 and 12 made easier, focusing on core competencies.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 New accreditation framework and independent authority for school governance.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Emphasis on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy, vocational education from Class 6, and mother tongue/regional language teaching up to Grade 5.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Introduction of a 360-degree Holistic Progress Card for student assessment.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Formulation of a comprehensive National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (NCFTE) 2021.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 By 2030, a 4-year integrated B.Ed. degree to be the minimum qualification for teaching.

Higher Education:

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Raising Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in higher education to 50% by 2035.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Adding 3.5 crore seats in higher education.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Introduction of flexible 3 or 4-year undergraduate programs with multiple exit options.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Discontinuation of M.Phil courses and promoting interdisciplinary courses.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Establishment of an Academic Bank of Credits for credit transfer.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Creation of Multidisciplinary Education and Research Universities (MERUs) to match global standards.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Formation of the National Research Foundation to promote research.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Establishment of the Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) as a single regulatory body for higher education.

Other Changes:

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Creation of the National Educational Technology Forum (NETF) to enhance technology use in education.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Establishment of the National Assessment Centre- ‘PARAKH’ for student assessment.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Encouragement for foreign universities to set up campuses in India.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Focus on Gender Inclusion Fund, Special Education Zones, and public investment reaching 6% of GDP.

 

Constitutional and Legal Framework:

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Constitutional provisions in Article 45 and Article 39 (f) for state-funded and equitable education.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Shift of education to the Concurrent List via the 42nd Amendment in 1976.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Enforceable right to education under Article 21-A through the 86th Amendment in 2002.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 RTE Act, 2009 mandates primary education for children aged 6 to 14.

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