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International Energy Agency (IEA) and India

Why is it in the news?

  • The International Energy Agency (IEA) has initiated discussions with India for its potential full membership.

About International Energy Agency (IEA)

  • The International Energy Agency (IEA) is a prominent intergovernmental organization headquartered in
  • Established in 1974 in response to global oil supply disruptions, the IEA’s primary objective is to ensure reliable, affordable, and clean energy for its members and the global community.
  • It provides advice and facilitates cooperation among industrialized nations on energy policies, with a focus on energy security and sustainability.
  • To qualify for full membership in the IEA, a country must be a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and meet specific criteria:

1) Maintain strategic reserves equivalent to 90 days of the previous year’s net imports.

2) Implement demand restraint programs to reduce oil consumption.

3) Establish legislation and organization to operate Coordinated Emergency Response Measures (CERM).

  • Currently, the IEA consists of 31 member countries, along with 13 association countries and 5 accession countries. Association countries, including India, Brazil, China, and South Africa, participate in IEA activities without full membership status.
Key Publications of IEA

·       World Energy Outlook

·       Net Zero by 2050: A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector

·       Energy Technology Perspectives

·       Global EV Outlook

·       Oil Market Report

·       World Energy Investment

·       Clean Energy Transitions Programme


Rationale for India’s Full Membership

  • India’s full membership would mark a significant shift in international energy governance, facilitating collaboration across the energy spectrum, particularly in energy security and clean energy transitions.
  • Given India’s status as the world’s most populous country, its participation is crucial in safeguarding global energy security.
  • With India being the fastest-growing major economy, its energy demand is expected to surge significantly in the coming decades due to industrialization and urbanization.
  • India’s membership would drive inclusive energy transitions, especially in renewable energy, and contribute significantly to combating climate change.
  • Full membership strengthens mutual trust and cooperation among member countries, enhancing global energy security, stability, and sustainability.
  • Access to IEA membership facilitates extensive knowledge exchange, bringing in talent, technology, and innovation to address energy challenges effectively.

Key Concerns

  • India’s lack of OECD membership poses a significant hurdle in achieving full IEA membership.
  • India’s strategic oil reserves fall short of IEA requirements, posing a challenge in meeting the necessary criteria.
  • Alignment with IEA’s energy policies may necessitate substantial changes to India’s current energy strategies and policies.
OECD (HQ: Paris, France)

·       It came into force in 1961, and currently has 38 members countries. India is not a member.

·       Its objective is to promote policies that improve economic and social wee-being, fostering economic growth, contributing to world trade, and enhancing the living standards of people in member countries.


  • India, representing 17% of the global population, acknowledges its responsibility in climate action with 4% of global carbon emissions.
  • Collaborative efforts between NITI Aayog and the IEA aim to foster sustainable growth, industrialization, and improved living standards while minimizing carbonization, with transformative impacts beyond India’s borders.
Additional Information

·       India has undertaken some of the world’s largest energy access initiatives, ensuring access to energy for its citizens.

·       Surpassing its Paris climate targets ahead of schedule, India remains firmly committed to addressing global climate issues.

·       India achieved its emissions intensity-related targets 11 years early and non-fossil fuel targets nine years ahead of schedule.

·       Aims to reduce emissions intensity of Gross Domestic Product by 45% by 2030 from 2005 levels.

·       Aims to achieve 50% cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030.

·       Committed to becoming a net-zero economy by 2070, indicating a proactive stance on climate action.

·       Leading initiatives like the International Solar Alliance and the Mission LiFE, focuses on promoting pro-planet lifestyle choices.

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