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Ecological Threat Report (ETR), 2023

Why is it in the news?

  • The Institute for Economics & Peace (IEP) released the Ecological Threat Report (ETR) for 2023, highlighting various ecological threats and their links to conflict.


About the Report

  • The ETR categorizes threats into four main areas: Food Insecurity, Natural Disasters, Demographic Pressure, and Water Risk.
  • Food Insecurity: 42 countries are experiencing severe food insecurity, with over 65% of their populations unable to afford food in the past year.
  • Natural Disasters: There is a significant risk of a devastating natural disaster affecting more than 5% of a population.
  • Demographic Pressure: Predictions indicate more than a 70% population increase by 2050, placing additional strain on resources and societal resilience.
  • Water Risk: Over 20% of the world’s population lacks access to clean drinking water.


The report finds a direct correlation between ecological threats and conflict:

  • A 25% worsening in food insecurity is linked to a 36% increased risk of conflict.
  • Natural disasters can exacerbate resource scarcity, leading to increased food and water insecurity and fuelling conflicts, especially in regions with lower levels of peacefulness, high climatic variability, high poverty, and weak governance, like the



·       The Sahel is a semi-arid region of Africa, serving as a transitional zone between the Sahara Desert to the north and the Sudanian savanna to the south.

·       It extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea in the east, encompassing parts of Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Algeria, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Sudan, South Sudan, Eritrea, and Ethiopia.


Recommendations (ETR 2023)

  • Strengthening resilience through robust institutions and infrastructure.
  • Empowering local communities to achieve greater sustainability.
  • Implementing innovative programs to enhance water resilience, such as sand dams and engineered wetlands.
  • Promoting Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration to restore degraded lands.

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