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Current Status of TB in India

Why is it in the news?

  • As per reports, in 2023, India recorded a substantial 25,37,235 cases of Tuberculosis.

More about the news

  • Notifications from the public sector reached 1,699,119, achieving an impressive 93% of the set target. This indicates a robust reporting system in the public healthcare domain.
  • The private sector contributed significantly, notifying 838,116 TB cases, reaching 89% of the targeted cases.
  • The reported cases show a decline from the previous year, indicating a positive trend in TB management efforts. In 2022, there was a 13% increase in notifications compared to 2021, demonstrating the impact of the pandemic on TB reporting in 2020 and 2021.
  • Over the years, there has been a steady rise in the private sector’s contribution to TB notifications. In 2020, it accounted for 31%, showcasing the importance of private healthcare in addressing TB.
  • Despite the decline in TB cases, the private sector’s notifications consistently fall short of the targets outlined in the National Strategic Plan (NSP) 2022-2025. This highlights the need for improved private sector engagement in TB control measures.
  • According to the National Strategic Plan (NSP), an estimated 0.54 million TB patients might not be captured by surveillance and services, possibly located in the private sector or the community. Addressing underreporting is a crucial aspect of TB management.

About Tuberculosis (TB)

  • TB is an infectious disease primarily affecting the lungs and is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium. Its transmission occurs through the air when infected individuals cough, sneeze, or spit.
  • TB is both preventable and curable, emphasizing the importance of early detection and treatment for effective disease management.
  • Approximately a quarter of the global population is estimated to have been infected with TB bacteria, making it a significant global health concern.
  • Individuals who are infected but not yet ill with the disease cannot transmit it to others. Understanding the transmission dynamics is crucial in implementing effective preventive measures.

National Strategic Plan (NSP) for Tuberculosis (2017-2025)

  • The NSP for Tuberculosis (2017-2025) was initiated by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, demonstrating the government’s commitment to addressing TB on a strategic and comprehensive level.
  • The NSP aligns with the global commitment to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets related to TB by 2025, aiming to reach this milestone five years ahead of the global target.
  • Part of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly Goal 3, which aims to end the TB epidemic by 2030. The NSP is a critical component of India’s contribution to achieving this global goal.
  • The NSP for Tuberculosis adopts a comprehensive approach based on four pillars: Detection, Treatment, Prevention, and Building capacity. These pillars provide a framework for addressing the various aspects of TB control and management.

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