|COP (Conference of the Parties)
|· International climate meeting organized annually by the United Nations.
· Involves representatives from 198 countries that are parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
· Aims to address and coordinate global efforts to combat climate change.
|· International treaty (1997-2020) that set obligations for industrialized countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
· Replaced by the Paris Agreement as the primary international treaty for climate action.
|· Adopted in 2015 at COP21, legally binding 195 nations to combat climate change and limit global temperature rise.
· Aims to keep global temperature increase “well below” 2 degrees Celsius and pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
|Glasgow Pact (COP26)
|· Agreed at COP26 in Glasgow, calling for the phase-down of coal and the phase-out of fossil fuels.
· Resolved deadlock over carbon markets.
|· Trading systems where carbon credits are bought and sold.
· Allow countries or industries to earn credits for exceeding emission reduction targets.
· Credits can be traded and used to meet reduction targets.
|· State where a country’s emissions entering the environment equal greenhouse gases being removed.
· Involves creating carbon sinks or using technologies for carbon dioxide removal.
|Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
|Process of capturing and trapping carbon dioxide, often used at fossil fuel plants to prevent emissions.
|Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS)
|Extends CCS by using captured carbon in the production of goods like fuels, plastics, or concrete.
|· Deliberate large-scale interventions in Earth’s systems to address climate change.
· Includes techniques like carbon dioxide removal (CDR) with effectiveness and side effects under debate.
|IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
|UN body assessing science related to climate change, providing reports on the state of knowledge.
|Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)
|Commitments by each country under the Paris Agreement to reduce emissions and adapt to climate impacts.
|National Adaptation Plans (NAPs)
|Plans helping countries respond to present and future climate impacts, enhancing resilience.
|Five-year review where countries assess progress in the fight against climate change.
|Triple Renewable Energy
|International Energy Agency’s (IEA) call to triple global renewable capacity by 2030 to achieve net-zero goals.
|Shift to a low-carbon or net-zero economy without compromising worker rights and community needs.
|Common but Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR)
|International law principle recognizing different capabilities and responsibilities of countries to address environmental problems like climate change.
|Loss and Damage
|· Refers to unavoidable social and financial impacts caused by extreme weather events.
· COP27 established a fund to provide financial help to countries affected by climate disasters.
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