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World Energy Outlook-2023 Report by IEA


Why is it in the news?

  • The International Energy Agency (IEA), an intergovernmental organization, is the authoritative source for global energy statistics and policy recommendations. It monitors the global energy transition and provides data to its member countries.
  • It focuses on Global energy outlook and recommendations for sustainable transitions.
  • This report provides insights into the current energy consumption patterns, forecasts for future energy demand, and actionable recommendations to steer the world towards sustainable energy practices.

More about the news

Fossil Fuel Dependence:

  • Currently, around 80% of global energy supply. Despite advancements in renewables, fossil fuels (like coal, oil, and natural gas) remain dominant in the global energy mix.
  • Projection by 2030: Expected to decrease to 73%. This projection indicates a positive, albeit slow, transition towards more sustainable energy sources.
  • Implication: CO2 emissions from energy-related activities predicted to peak by 2025.

 

India’s Energy Landscape:

  • Growth: India expected to have the highest energy demand growth over the next 30 years.
  • Consumption: By 2050, power usage for household air conditioners projected to increase nine-fold.
  • Emissions: By 2030, Industrial emissions will be reduced by 30%. This underscores India’s commitment to a greener industrial transition. Further, CO2 emissions from passenger cars will decrease by 25% per kilometre which signifies an expected shift to more efficient vehicles and possibly, a larger EV uptake.

 

India’s Energy Strategy:

  • Aims for long-term net-zero emissions. Aligns with global efforts to achieve a balance between the amount of greenhouse gas emissions produced and the amount removed from the atmosphere.
  • Improved regulatory methods indicating India’s evolution in refining and implementing energy-related policies.
  • Clean energy deployment and establishing domestic clean energy tech supply chains.

 

Recommendations:

 

Clean Energy Transition:

  • Shift towards sustainable energy sources, like solar, wind, and hydro.
  • Combat climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

 

Renewable Energy Investment:

  • Increase funding in infrastructure for solar and wind projects.
  • Address growing energy demands and minimize fossil fuel reliance.

 

Transportation Electrification:

  • Promote the growth of electric vehicles (EVs) and develop charging infrastructures.
  • Reduce carbon footprint of the transport sector.

 

Carbon Pricing:

  • Implement mechanisms like carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.
  • Encourage initiatives for emissions reduction.

 

International Collaboration:

  • Engage in partnerships to access technology, know-how, and funding for sustainable energy projects.
  • Collaboration enables pooling of resources, technological exchanges, and shared best practices.

 

Addressing Air Pollution:

  • Introduce stricter emissions standards for both vehicles and industries.
  • Reducing air pollutants like PM2.5 and NOx is crucial for public health.
  • Improve public health and decrease environmental harm.
About International Energy Agency (IEA):

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Founded in November 1974 by OECD members after the 1973 oil crisis.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Headquarters: Paris, France.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Central hub for energy data analysis and policy advice.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 India joined as an Associate member in 2017.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Enhance global energy security and ensure stable energy supplies.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 It acts as a watchdog and advisor on global energy matters.

 

India’s Carbon Emission Reduction Initiatives:

International Solar Alliance (ISA):

  • Launch: 2015.
  • Purpose: Efficient solar energy utilization by “sunshine countries”.
  • Aims to harness solar energy in countries lying between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

One Sun, One World, One Grid Project:

  • Collaboration: Alongside the UK.
  • Vision: Establish inter-regional energy grids to globally share solar energy.
  • Imagining a connected world, powered by the sun.

 

E-mobility Promotion:

  • Scheme: Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles.
  • Promoting the use of EVs to reduce the carbon footprint of transportation.

 

Mission LiFE:

  • Aims for individual and collective actions for environmental protection.
  • Encouraging grassroot-level participation in conservation.

 

Leadership Group for Industry Transition (LeadIT):

  • Encourage businesses to adopt low-carbon practices and technologies.
  • Helping industries transition towards sustainability.

 

 

Top of Form

Miscellaneous

1) Cyclone Tej

Why is it in the news?

  • The聽India Meteorological Department (IMD)predicted that聽Cyclone Tej, a depression gathering force in the Arabian Sea, intensified into an聽鈥榚xtremely severe cyclonic storm鈥聽near the coasts of Oman and Yemen.

 

Increase in Frequency of Arabian Sea Cyclones:

 

Changing Ocean and Atmosphere Patterns:

  • Alterations in warming patterns lead to more frequent and severe tropical cyclones in the Eastern Arabian Sea.

 

Indian Ocean Dipole鈥檚 (IOD) Role:

  • Positive phase of IOD results in warmer sea surface temperatures.
  • Increased rainfall in the western Indian Ocean region.

 

Human-Induced Impact:

  • Recent surge in severe post-monsoon cyclonic storms in the Arabian Sea attributed to anthropogenic factors.
  • Shift observed from natural variability to human-induced factors.
  • Human-induced climate change amplifies frequency and intensity of cyclones in the Arabian Sea.

 

IOD

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 The IOD, akin to the El Ni帽o, involves temperature differences in the Indian Ocean.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 A positive IOD arises when the western Indian Ocean (near Somalia) warms more than the eastern side.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 In contrast, a negative IOD occurs when the western side is cooler than the eastern.

 

 

2) EU Report on 2% Global Wealth Tax on Billionaires

Why is it in the news?

  • European Union Tax Observatory released the 鈥楪lobal Tax Evasion Report 2024鈥.
  • Proposes a 2% global wealth tax on billionaires.

 

Key Findings

  • Offshore tax evasion reduced by three times due to the automatic exchange of bank information in the last 10 years. (Note: Automatic exchange introduced in 2017 to combat offshore tax evasion. By 2023, over 100 countries exchanged non-resident deposit information.)
  • Billionaires globally have effective tax rates between 0% and 0.5%.
  • $1 trillion profit moved to tax havens in 2022, equating to 35% of profits by multinationals outside their HQ country.
  • Tax revenue loss due to profit shifting is stagnant at about 10% of corporate tax revenue.
  • Global minimum tax has weakened significantly. In 2021, over 140 countries agreed on a 15% minimum tax on multinational profits to boost global tax revenue by 10%.
  • 鈥楪reenwashing the global minimum tax鈥 trend spotted; MNCs using 鈥榞reen鈥 tax credits to lower tax rates beneath the 15% threshold.
  • Rise of aggressive tax competition affects government revenue and increases inequality.
  • Green-energy subsidies may negate revenue from the global minimum corporate tax.

 

3) Kasturi Cotton Bharat

Why is it in the news?

Union Textiles Minister launched the Kasturi Cotton Bharat website for information and updates.

 

More about news

  • Kasturi Cotton Brand: Introduced by the Ministry of Textiles on World Cotton Day (7th October 2020) to elevate the reputation of Indian cotton globally.

 

Kasturi Cotton Bharat:

  • A collaborative effort involving the Ministry of Textiles, the Cotton Corporation of India, Trade Bodies & Industry.
  • Aim is to operate on the principle of self-regulation, overseeing branding, traceability, and certification of Indian Cotton.
  • This initiative intends to boost its global competitiveness and cultivate a sustainable environment for all associated stakeholders.

 

4) Mission Mahila Sarathi

Why is it in the news?

  • Mission Mahila Sarathi was launched in Ayodhya by UP’s Chief Minister under Mission Shakti Abhiyan.

 

About Mission Mahila Sarathi:

  • The newly introduced 51 buses will have women as the sole operators, both drivers and conductors.
  • Seeks to enhance women empowerment, safety, and progress under the broader scope of Mission Shakti Abhiyan.

 

Mission Shakti Abhiyan:

  • Introduced by the Uttar Pradesh government to champion women’s empowerment and ensure their safety and welfare.
  • Strives to inform women about their rights and familiarize them with legal provisions and available support systems.
  • Launched the “Shakti App” to offer women a rapid and user-friendly medium to report harassment or violent incidents and seek assistance.
  • Provides legal assistance to women confronted with legal problems such as domestic abuse, harassment, or property rights disputes.

 

5) Operation Chakra II

Why is it in the news?

  • The CBI has recently launched Operation Chakra-II.

 

About Operation Chakra II:

  • Aimed at combating transnational organised cyber-enabled financial crimes in India.
  • Collaboration between CBI, Microsoft, and Amazon.
  • Partnerships also established with: FBI (United States); Cyber Crime Directorate and IFCACC of INTERPOL; National Crime Agency (UK); Singapore Police Force; and BKA of Germany.

 

Reason for Involvement of Microsoft and Amazon:

  • Criminals run illegal call centres, impersonating Microsoft and Amazon customer support.
  • Over 2,000 customers targeted in countries like US, Canada, Germany, Australia, Spain, and the UK.
  • Companies believe such partnerships are pivotal in shielding consumers from impersonation scams.
  • Amazon and Microsoft to enhance tech defences against online threats.
Chakra-1

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Chakra-1 was conducted about a year prior, coordinated by CBI, INTERPOL, FBI, and various global police forces.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 The operation included searches at 115 locations in collaboration with state police forces.

 

6) India’s First Namo Bharat Train

Why is it in the news?

  • Recently, PM Modi inaugurated the first Namo Bharat train, establishing the Delhi-Ghaziabad-Meerut RRTS Corridor.

 

About Namo Bharat Train & RRTS Corridor

  • India’s debut Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) titled “Namo Bharat train.”
  • Links Delhi-Ghaziabad-Meerut, ensuring a travel time under an hour via Ghaziabad, Muradnagar, and Modinagar urban centres.
  • An initiative of the National Capital Region Transport Corporation (NCRTC).
  • Achieves a peak speed of 180 km/h.
  • Managed and overseen by Deutsche Bahn, a German railway entity.
  • High-speed intercity commuter trains every 15 minutes, adaptable to as frequent as every 5 minutes if required.

 

Benefits

  • Reduced Travel Time: Enables swifter travel, enhancing productivity and curtailing traffic congestion time.
  • Decongestion of Roads: Furnishes an efficient car travel substitute, lessening NCR region congestion, facilitating smooth traffic and minimizing air contamination.
  • Environmental Advantages: Electricity-operated RRTS curtails greenhouse gas emissions and pollution.
  • Improved Accessibility: RRTS stations are well-integrated with other public transport systems, abiding by Transit Oriented Development (TOD) principles.
  • Enhanced Safety: RRTS prioritizes safety with contemporary signalling systems, barriers, and safety regulations to decrease accidents.

 

7) Jamrani Dam Multipurpose Project under PMKSY

Why is it in the news?

  • The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved the inclusion of Jamrani Dam Multipurpose Project under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) 鈥 Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (PMKSY-AIBP).

 

About PMKSY

  • Central Sponsored Scheme (Core Scheme) from 2015-16.
  • Aim is to enhance water access on farms, expand cultivable areas with assured irrigation, improve water use efficiency, and promote water conservation practices.
  • Implementation approved for 2021-26 with an outlay of Rs.93,068.56 crore.

 

AIBP component of PMKSY

  • Focuses on creating irrigation potential via major and medium irrigation projects.
  • 53 projects completed under PMKSY-AIBP.
  • Additional irrigation potential of 25.14 lakh hectare achieved.
  • Six projects added post the initiation of PMKSY 2.0 in 2021-22.

 

Jamrani Dam Multipurpose Project

  • Seventh project to be added to the list.
  • Construction of a dam near Jamrani village.
  • Located on the Gola River, a tributary of the Ram Ganga River.

 

 

8) Guide on Interventions for National Action Plans on AMR (Antimicrobial Resistance)

Why is it in the news?

  • Assists countries in formulating, implementing, and monitoring national AMR action plans.
  • Approach: People-centred, shifting from solely viewing AMR as a biological phenomenon (drug resistance).

 

Foundational Steps for Addressing AMR:

 

Effective Governance, Awareness, and Education:

  • Implement strong regulatory frameworks.
  • Educate the public and stakeholders about AMR.

 

Strategic Information through Surveillance and Research:

  • Monitor AMR trends.
  • Conduct research to understand and combat AMR effectively.

 

Four Pillars of Interventions:

 

Prevention of Infections:

  • Implement hygiene and sanitation practices.
  • Vaccination and other preventive measures.

 

Access to Essential Health Services:

  • Ensure healthcare accessibility for all.
  • Strengthen healthcare infrastructure.

 

Timely and Accurate Diagnosis:

  • Invest in diagnostic tools and labs.
  • Reduce delays in detecting resistant infections.

 

Appropriate and Quality-assured Treatment:

  • Ensure drugs meet quality standards.
  • Administer correct treatment regimens.

 

Understanding AMR:

  • AMR happens when microbes (like bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) mutate, making drugs ineffective against them.
  • Impact: Resistant infections spread more widely; and Treatments become challenging, prolonged, and often less effective.
  • “Superbugs”: Microorganisms that have developed resistance and pose significant health threats.

 

Challenges in Controlling AMR:

 

System Challenges:

  • Limited laboratory capacities hinder detection and research.
  • Weak regulations, especially over-the-counter (OTC) medications, lead to misuse.

 

People鈥檚 Challenges:

  • Inappropriate self-medication increases resistance.
  • High out-of-pocket expenditure affects appropriate healthcare access and adherence.

 

Key Initiatives (India and WHO):

 

India’s Initiatives:

  • National Action Plan (2017): Focuses on a “One Health” approach, emphasizing collaboration across sectors.
  • NARS-Net: National AMR surveillance network consisting of state medical college labs. Aims to produce quality AMR data.

 

WHO’s Initiative:

  • Global Action Plan on AMR (2015): Adopted by the World Health Assembly. A comprehensive strategy to tackle AMR globally.

 

9) Revival of Dogra Architecture in Maharaj Gunj, Srinagar

Why is it in the news?

  • Revival of the historical Maharaj Gunj market in Srinagar, affected previously by encroachments and deviations.
  • Srinagar Smart City Ltd. and the Kashmir chapter of the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH)聽are collaborating to聽conserve vernacular elements of Kashmiri architecture, particularly those introduced by Dogra Hindu kings between 1846 and 1947.

Dogra Architecture Highlights:

About:

  • Dogra鈥檚 are considered to be of Indo-Aryan origin, migrating to Jammu from Punjab in ancient times.

 

Key Characteristics:

  • Emphasizes the use of regional stone, wood, and bricks.
  • Features symmetrical designs with ornate detailing.
  • Distinct use of intricately carved wooden balconies.
  • Sloped designs to manage snowfall, complemented by overhanging eaves.
  • Central courtyards incorporated for lighting and ventilation.
  • Blend of Hindu and Tibetan architectural styles.

 

Notable Examples:

  • Mubarak Mandi: Once the centre of Dogra culture until 1947.
  • Jharokha Balcony: A unique style of balcony seen in Dogra architecture.
  • Amar Mahal Palace: A testament to Dogra architectural splendour.

 

 

10) Ram Leela and Indian Diaspora in Trinidad and Tobago

Why is it in the news?

  • Ram Leela is still performed by the Indian Diaspora in Trinidad and Tobago. The tradition was brought by Indian indentured laborers who migrated to the island.

 

Indentured Labourers: An Overview

  • Laborers recruited by the British to work in plantations across their colonies.
  • Reason for Recruitment: Abolition of the Slave trade in 1834 within the British Empire.
  • Often called “Girimityas”.
  • Origins in India: Primarily from Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Tamil Nadu.
  • Settlement: Colonies like Fiji, Mauritius, Sri Lanka, Trinidad, Guyana, Malaysia, Uganda, Kenya, and South Africa.

 

Abolition of Indentured Labour System

 

  • Madan Mohan Malviya moved a resolution in 1916 in the Indian Legislative Council against the system.
  • The British government officially ended the system in 1917.
  • South Africa’s Settlement: Under the Smuts Gandhi Settlement (1914), Gandhi achieved a poll-tax waiver for the indentured laborers.

 

Significance of Indentured Labourers

  • They played a pivotal role in spreading Indian culture worldwide, evidenced by temple constructions and Indian festival celebrations.
  • Many laborers transitioned into small planters and became significant figures in political and economic spheres, marking the beginning of the Indian diaspora in various societies.

 

11) Recognition for Dhordo Village by UNWTO

Why is it in the news?

  • Dhordo village in Gujarat has been recognized as one of the Best Tourism Villages in 2023 by UNWTO.
  • Dhordo is situated in the Great Rann of Kutch. The village is renowned for the Rann Utsav, an annual festival celebrating the local culture, arts, music, and crafts.

 

UNWTO’s Village Recognition Program

 

  • Recognizes villages contributing to rural development and preserving cultural diversity, landscapes, and culinary traditions.
  • Criteria: Villages that stand out in areas like cultural/natural resources, sustainability, and tourism development.
  • The “Best Tourism Villages” initiative was launched by UNWTO in 2021. Aiming to promote rural development, combat rural depopulation, and support sustainable tourism practices.

 

About United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

  • A specialized UN agency that promotes responsible, sustainable, and universally accessible tourism.
  • Located in Madrid, Spain.
  • Sees tourism as a key driver of economic growth, inclusive development, and environmental sustainability.

 

12) Little Ice Age (LIA) Study in Western Ghats

Why is it in the news?

  • A New study challenges traditional views of the Little Ice Age (LIA), a global climatic event spanning from 1671-1942.
  • Climate history of the Western Ghats from 1219 to 1942 reconstructed using pollen-based vegetation data.

 

Key Findings:

  • Contrary to belief, the LIA was not uniformly cold and dry.
  • Significant variations in rainfall patterns observed during LIA.
  • Northeast winter monsoon (NEM) resulted in a “moist” or “wet” LIA in the Western Ghats.

 

Factors Influencing Climate Changes:

  • Northward shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).
  • Positive temperature anomalies.
  • Increase in sunspot numbers.
  • High solar activity.

 

Implications:

  • Paleoclimatic Models: The study’s findings can help in developing models for predicting future climates.
  • Policy Planning: Beneficial for strategizing climate-related policies.
  • Understanding Monsoons: Provides insights into the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and its variations during the Holocene.

 

LIA Cause:

  • Cooling effect due to volcanic aerosols contributed to LIA.
  • Lower surface temperatures during LIA were also a result of low solar activity.

 

13) Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA)

Why is it in the news?

  • Supreme Court of India stated that DTAA can’t be enforced unless notified under Section 90 of the Income Tax Act.
  • This ruling affects MNCs from Switzerland, the Netherlands, France, and others.

 

Implications:

  • Potential increase in tax revenue for the Indian government.
  • Potential tensions with tax treaty partner countries.
  • Decision centres on the interpretation of the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) clause in treaties with OECD member countries.
  • MFN allows for tax rate concessions on dividends, interest, royalties, or technical service fees, akin to concessions provided to other OECD nations.

 

About DTAA:

  • The Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) is a treaty between two or more countries to prevent double taxation on income earned in both source and residence countries.

 

14) Green Energy Corridor (GEC)

Why is it in the news?

  • Approval for the GEC Phase-II 鈥 Inter-State Transmission System (ISTS) for a 13 GW Renewable Energy Project in Ladakh by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs.

 

About Green Energy Corridor (GEC):

  • To integrate and evacuate renewable energy into India’s power grid, ensuring sustainable growth and improved energy security.
  • Two phases with Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID) as implementation agency.

 

GEC Phase-1:

  • Under implementation.
  • Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Rajasthan.
  • Integrate and evacuate 24GW of Renewable Energy.

 

GEC Phase-2:

  • Duration: FY 2021-22 to 2025-26.
  • Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Goal: Grid integration and power evacuation of approx. 20 GW of RE projects.

 

Objectives:

  • Synchronize renewable energy sources (like wind and solar) with traditional power sources.
  • Reach a 500 GW electricity capacity from non-fossil fuels by 2030.
  • Evacuate 20,000 MW of large-scale renewable power.

 

Significance:

  • Ensuring long-term energy security for India.
  • Promoting environmentally-friendly growth by minimizing carbon emissions.
  • Generating employment opportunities for various skill levels.

 

15) Niemann-Pick Disease

Why is it in the news?

  • Parents of children suffering from Niemann-Pick disease, a rare genetic disorder affecting fat metabolism, are urging the Indian government to include it in the聽National Policy for Rare Diseases.

More about the news

  • An inherited metabolic disorder resulting in abnormal lipid accumulation in the brain, spleen, liver, lungs, and bone marrow.
  • Symptoms: Enlarged liver and spleen, coordination difficulties, frequent respiratory infections, slurred speech, etc.
  • Causes: Inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Both gene copies need to be faulty for the disease to manifest.
  • Occurrences: Affects 1 in 250,000 individuals. Treatment is expensive.

 

National Policy for Rare Diseases:

  • A government initiative aimed at supporting individuals with rare and uncommon medical conditions.

 

Significance of Inclusion:

  • The Drug Controller General of India has approved the import and marketing of Xenpozyme after receiving US FDA approval.
  • Financial support for eligible patients.
  • Access to expensive enzyme replacement therapy, specifically Xenpozyme.

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