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The Green Finance Challenge

Why is it in the news?

  • Recently, over 100 countries and global private sector entities convened in Paris with a unified mission that no nation should be torn between combating poverty and battling for the planet.

More about the news

About Climate finance

  • Climate finance pertains to funding at local, national, or transnational levels from varied sources that addresses climate change mitigation and adaptation.
  • For instance, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Kyoto Protocol, and the Paris Agreement emphasize financial aid from affluent countries to the less prosperous and more vulnerable ones.

Developed Countries’ Stance on Financing

  • They are nearing the target of providing $100 billion annually for developing nations.
  • Private finance is viewed as the vital element of climate finance.

The Paris Pact for People and the Planet

  • Born from collaboration between France and India. India co-chaired the Summit’s steering committee.
  • Recognized in the G20 Leaders’ Declaration at the Delhi Summit.
  • Focuses on amplifying private capital to revamp emerging and developing economies.
  • Echoes the World Bank President’s promise: Every World Bank dollar will match at least a dollar of private finance.


  • Need to revamp the international financial system for sustainable development.
  • Overlapping challenges of poverty reduction, climate change, and biodiversity conservation.

Climate Finance by France

  • Public sector commitment: $100 billion annually for 2020-2025, expected to be achieved by 2023.
  • In 2022, France surpassed its commitment with €7.6 billion in climate financing.
  • Since 2012, the French Development Agency pledged over €2 billion for India’s sustainable projects.

Strategies to Boost Private-Sector Funding

  • It’s essential to assess the performance and efficiency of global vertical climate funds to ensure the optimal use of resources.
  • A cohesive approach can ensure that finance mechanisms are streamlined and complementary.
  • The financial regulations post the 2008 crisis may unintentionally hamper the flow of OECD savings to non-OECD countries. A thorough review can help in identifying and mitigating such impediments.
  • There’s a need to make regulations more straightforward and consistent. This will reduce risks and perceived risks for global investors eyeing sustainable projects in developing nations.
  • Credit-rating agencies must be a part of the reformative discussions of multilateral development banks. Agencies should consider innovative blended finance schemes and new default data when assigning ratings.
  • Contrary to popular belief, projects in many developing countries with solid multilateral guarantees are less likely to default compared to corporations or even sovereign entities.
  • The global savings pool can be harnessed more effectively by further refining the green finance framework, ensuring every dollar spent aids climate action.
  • Costs associated with mitigation strategies should guide financing decisions, ensuring that every investment yields maximum climate-positive outcomes.
  • Partnerships like Just Energy Transition Partnerships, already active in countries like Indonesia, Vietnam, South Africa, and Senegal, demonstrate how collaboration can effectively mobilize investments.
  • Additional efforts should focus on supporting nations keen on removing coal from their energy mix, furthering the global transition to cleaner energy sources.

 Factors Influencing Private Investments

  • Prudential guidelines.
  • Right investment signals for sustainable projects.
  • Stability, transparency, and promoting investment opportunities.

Way Forward

  • Encouraging private sector finance shouldn’t excuse governments from resolving developing countries’ debt issues.
  • Addressing the unsustainable debt paths of many low and middle-income countries is paramount.
  • Every major creditor must assume responsibility.
  • The spirit, which is that of India’s vasudhaiva kutumbakam, must guide efforts to make the global financial system more efficient and more just.

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