Why is it in the news?
- ISRO conducted a successful 21-day-long thermal vacuum test in preparation for the satellite’s launch in 2024. The test was performed in a facility that simulates the expected flight conditions.
- NISAR is a joint project developed by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation).
- It is a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) observatory designed for Earth observation.
- NISAR’s primary objective is to map the entire globe in just 12 days.
- It provides consistent data for understanding changes in Earth’s ecosystems and ice mass.
- NISAR is equipped with both L-band and S-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instruments.
- L-band radars are used for clear air turbulence studies, while S-band radars are useful for weather observation.
- The satellite features a 39-foot gold mesh antenna reflector that focuses radar signals from the upward-facing instrument.
- NISAR’s large imaging area (>240km) enables it to capture full-earth images in just 12 days.
- It offers high precision and resolution (<1cm) due to its dual-band radar systems.
- NISAR monitors various regions, including Indian coasts, Antarctica, and deltaic regions, for changes in bathymetry.
- It observes disturbances in ecosystems, ice sheet collapses, and natural hazards, providing valuable data for Earth science and environmental monitoring.
- These points highlight the mission objectives and significance of the NISAR satellite in Earth observation and environmental monitoring.
- Measurement of forest cover and land usage.
- Monitoring of oil and gas exploration activities.
- Assessment of water resources, including changes in water bodies.
- Tracking the source and epicentre of earthquakes.
- Monitoring landslides and oil spills.
- Mapping the aftermath and impact of disasters for effective response.
- Observing changes in permafrost conditions.
- Monitoring shifts in ice sheets and glaciers.
- Tracking Cryospheric changes for climate and environmental research.