Why is it in the news?
- The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has recently released International Migration Outlook 2023.
About the Migration Report
- India emerged as the top country of origin for new citizens in OECD countries in 2021, with 400,000 new migrants (excluding students).
- Permanent-type migration to OECD countries reached a record of 6 million in 2022, driven by family migration, managed labour migration, and free mobility.
- Germany, Poland, and the U.S. have the highest number of refugees from Ukraine in absolute terms.
- Immigrant Mothers’ face significant disadvantages compared to immigrant women without children and their native-born counterparts.
- Migrant women tend to have more children than native-born women in OECD countries, but their total fertility rate is mostly below the replacement rate (2.1 children per woman). (Note: Replacement level fertility is the level of fertility at which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to the next)
- 20% gap in employment rates between immigrant mothers and native-born mothers.
- Individual preferences, cultural factors, and childcare responsibilities are major barriers for migrant mothers seeking employment.
Impacts of Migration on Labor Markets and Economic Growth:
· Labor markets benefit from migrants filling niches.
· Young migrants are generally more educated.
· Migrants enhance labor-market flexibility, especially in Europe.
· Fiscal contributions: Migrants contribute more in taxes than they consume in benefits.
· Economic growth factors include boosting working-age population, skills contribution, and technological progress.
· Racial tension and discrimination, e.g., policies in Australia and USA.
· Gender imbalance with predominant male migration.
· Increased pressure on natural resources leading to housing and environmental issues.
· Exploitation of Workers, e.g., the Kafala system in the Gulf.
Global Migration Dynamics
- India has the largest diaspora with 18 million Indians abroad.
- India leads in receiving remittances, crossing the $100-billion mark.
- Major destinations for Indian emigrants are Gulf countries, the USA, Canada, and the UK.
- The Russia-Ukraine war led to millions of Ukrainian refugees in OECD countries.
Internal Migration in India
- 37% (45 crore) of India’s population are migrants.
- Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI) 2021 report indicates states like UP, Bihar, and Jharkhand experience net out-migration.
- Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Karnataka are primary recipients of rural migrants.
Drivers of Global Migration
- Employment opportunities: e.g., Migration to Gulf countries from India.
- Climate crisis: Migration due to extreme weather events.
- Wars: As seen in Russia-Ukraine and Israel-Palestine conflicts.
- Internal disturbances: e.g., Afghanistan crisis.
- Skilled labor demand in the West, notably from India and China.
· Genesis: Originally formed as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) to administer American and Canadian aid under the Marshall Plan. It transformed into OECD in 1961.
· Description: An international organization collaborating with member countries and partners on global issues at various levels.
· Members: 38 countries including the USA, Mexico, Australia, Canada, France, Japan, and the UK. India is not a member.
· Role: OECD countries and their partners account for approximately 80% of global trade and investment.