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International Migration Outlook 2023

Why is it in the news?

  • The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has recently released International Migration Outlook 2023.

About the Migration Report

Key Findings

  • India emerged as the top country of origin for new citizens in OECD countries in 2021, with 400,000 new migrants (excluding students).
  • Permanent-type migration to OECD countries reached a record of 6 million in 2022, driven by family migration, managed labour migration, and free mobility.
  • Germany, Poland, and the U.S. have the highest number of refugees from Ukraine in absolute terms.
  • Immigrant Mothers’ face significant disadvantages compared to immigrant women without children and their native-born counterparts.
  • Migrant women tend to have more children than native-born women in OECD countries, but their total fertility rate is mostly below the replacement rate (2.1 children per woman). (Note: Replacement level fertility is聽the level of fertility at which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to the next)
  • 20% gap in employment rates between immigrant mothers and native-born mothers.
  • Individual preferences, cultural factors, and childcare responsibilities are major barriers for migrant mothers seeking employment.

 

 

Impacts of Migration on Labor Markets and Economic Growth:

Positive Impacts:

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Labor markets benefit from migrants filling niches.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Young migrants are generally more educated.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Migrants enhance labor-market flexibility, especially in Europe.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Fiscal contributions: Migrants contribute more in taxes than they consume in benefits.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Economic growth factors include boosting working-age population, skills contribution, and technological progress.

Negative Impacts:

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Racial tension and discrimination, e.g., policies in Australia and USA.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Gender imbalance with predominant male migration.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Increased pressure on natural resources leading to housing and environmental issues.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Exploitation of Workers, e.g., the Kafala system in the Gulf.

Global Migration Dynamics

  • India has the largest diaspora with 18 million Indians abroad.
  • India leads in receiving remittances, crossing the $100-billion mark.
  • Major destinations for Indian emigrants are Gulf countries, the USA, Canada, and the UK.
  • The Russia-Ukraine war led to millions of Ukrainian refugees in OECD countries.

Internal Migration in India

  • 37% (45 crore) of India’s population are migrants.
  • Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI) 2021 report indicates states like UP, Bihar, and Jharkhand experience net out-migration.
  • Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Karnataka are primary recipients of rural migrants.

Drivers of Global Migration

  • Employment opportunities: e.g., Migration to Gulf countries from India.
  • Climate crisis: Migration due to extreme weather events.
  • Wars: As seen in Russia-Ukraine and Israel-Palestine conflicts.
  • Internal disturbances: e.g., Afghanistan crisis.
  • Skilled labor demand in the West, notably from India and China.
About OECD:

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Genesis: Originally formed as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) to administer American and Canadian aid under the Marshall Plan. It transformed into OECD in 1961.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Description: An international organization collaborating with member countries and partners on global issues at various levels.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Members: 38 countries including the USA, Mexico, Australia, Canada, France, Japan, and the UK. India is not a member.

路聽聽聽聽聽聽 Role: OECD countries and their partners account for approximately 80% of global trade and investment.

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