Why is it in the news?
- With improvements in technology related to artificial intelligence (AI), deepfakes are becoming common on the internet which include pictures, audio or videos.
About Deepfake Technology
- A combination of AI and machine learning used to manipulate or generate visual and audio content with a high potential to deceive.
- It is part of deep synthesis, utilizing AI to create realistic text, images, audio, and video.
Applications and Misuse:
- Deepfakes are used for generating fake news, committing financial fraud, and more.
- They manipulate existing content with AI to create convincing forgeries.
- Machine learning algorithms make deepfakes more sophisticated than older photo-editing techniques.
- Used to create false portrayals of political figures and fabricate events.
Positive Uses of Deep Learning:
- Restoring voices, recreating historical figures for educational purposes.
- Enhancing creativity in art, comedy, cinema, and gaming.
Ethical and Social Implications:
- In cases like revenge porn, deepfakes pose significant ethical issues.
- They make distinguishing between real and fake media content difficult.
- The spread of false information can lead to social and political turmoil.
India’s Stance on Deepfakes:
- India currently lacks laws specifically addressing deepfakes.
- Sections of the Information Technology (IT) Act and Indian Penal Code (IPC) that deal with defamation and explicit content may apply.
- Further, the Personal Data Protection Bill may offer indirect protections.
- European Union: Updated the Code of Practice on Disinformation to combat deepfake spread.
- United States: The Deepfake Task Force Act helps Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to fight deepfake technology.
- China: Comprehensive regulations demand labelling, traceability, consent, and adherence to moral standards.
Strategies for Combating Deepfakes:
- AI Fact-Checking: Social Media should utilize AI for identifying and flagging deepfakes.
- Blockchain Verification: Implement blockchain to record digital media’s creation and edits for authenticity.
- Deepfake Mitigation Fund: Financial support for those affected by deepfakes.
- Legislative Actions: Introduction of Deepfake Accountability Acts to enforce responsible creation and distribution.
- Punitive Measures & Education: Laws to punish misuse and campaigns to raise public awareness on deepfakes.
|Identifying ‘Deepfake’ Videos|
· Deepfakes may show irregular eye movements or gaze patterns that do not align with the overall body language or spoken words.
· Look for inconsistencies in colour tones and lighting on the subject’s face compared to the environment which could indicate manipulation.
· Compare the audio with visual elements; AI-generated audio might contain subtle flaws that reveal it is not authentic.
· Distorted or unnatural body movements, or incorrect limb proportions, can be a sign of a deepfake.
· Watch for facial expressions that are exaggerated, poorly synced with speech, or otherwise out of context.
· Distortions or misplacements of facial features might signal the video has been altered.
· Unusual body positions or movements that seem implausible or awkward could be evidence of a deepfake video.
· Use a screenshot of the video and run a reverse image search (e.g., via Google Images) to find the source or verify the original content.