(SYLLABUS RELEVANCE: GS 1/2: Culture/International Relations)
Why is it in the news?
- G-20 nations recently reached a consensus on addressing cultural heritage destruction, illicit trafficking of artefacts, cultural property restitution, and the protection of indigenous people’s living heritage.
- An outcome document titled ‘The Kashi Culture Pathway’ was released at the fourth Culture Working Group meeting held in Varanasi.(First two meetings in Khajuraho (Madhya Pradesh) and Bhubaneswar (Odisha); Third meeting in Hampi (Karnataka)).
- This Culture Corridor project at the G-20 Summit venue aims to celebrate and promote the cultural heritage of participating nations through physical and digital displays.
Display of Objects of Cultural Significance
- Magna Carta (UK’s charter of rights).
- 15th-century bronze statue of Belvedere Apollo (Italy).
- 18th-century Fahua-lidded jar (China).
- India’s contribution: Panini’s Ashtadhyayi (ancient text).
Digital Museum Contributions
- France: Iconic painting Mona Lisa.
- Germany: Gutenberg’s Bible.
- Mexico: Statue of the deity ‘Coatlicue’.
Concept and Purpose
- Conceptualized by the Ministry of Culture as a legacy project.
- Celebrates the shared heritage of G-20 member and invitee countries.
- Creates a “museum in the making.”
Unveiling Date and Venue
Exhibition to be unveiled at ‘Bharat Mandapam’ during the G-20 Leaders’ Summit on September 9.
- Object of Cultural Significance (physical display).
- Iconic Cultural Masterpiece (digital display).
- Intangible Cultural Heritage (digital display).
- Natural Heritage (digital display).
- Artefact Related to Democratic Practices (physical or digital display).
All G-20 member countries and guest nations have confirmed their participation in the heritage project.
- 12-ft digital cube showcasing iconic masterpieces through anamorphic content.
- Celebrates objects related to democratic practices, including a text from Riga Veda.
Natural Heritage Contributions
- United States: Grand Canyon (Arizona).
- Netherlands: Wadden Sea.
- India: The Himalayas, among others.
PANINI- THE FATHER OF LINGUISTICS
- Panini is believed to have lived in either the 4th century BC, during Alexander’s conquests and the Mauryan Empire’s founding, or the 6th century BC, during the time of The Buddha and Mahavira.
- He likely resided in Salatura (Gandhara), which is in modern-day north-west Pakistan.
- Associated with the renowned university at Takshasila, which also produced Kautilya and Charaka, ancient Indian masters of statecraft and medicine.
- ‘Ashtadhyayi,’ meaning ‘Eight Chapters,’ is Panini’s seminal work on grammar.
- It set the standard for writing and speaking Sanskrit.
- Comprises over 4,000 grammatical rules, using a shorthand method with single letters or syllables for case names, moods, persons, tenses, and more.
- At the time of its composition, Sanskrit had nearly reached its classical form, and it saw minimal further development except for its vocabulary.
- Panini’s grammar, building on earlier grammarians’ work, stabilized Sanskrit.
III) It stands as one of the greatest intellectual achievements of any ancient civilization and the most detailed and scientific grammar before the 19th century worldwide.
- Earlier grammarians recognized the root as the fundamental element of a word.
- They classified around 2,000 monosyllabic roots, which, combined with prefixes, suffixes, and inflections, were thought to form the entire language.
Commentaries on Panini
- Later Indian grammarians, including Patanjali’s ‘Mahabhasya’ (2nd century BC) and Jayaditya and Vamana’s ‘Kashika Vritti’ (7th century AD), provided commentaries on Panini’s work.
- Panini’s contributions to linguistics and Sanskrit grammar remain profound and enduring, laying the foundation for the structure and understanding of the language.
- ‘Magna Carta’, the Charter of Rights issued by King John of England in 1215 was the first written document relating to the Fundamental Rights of citizens.
- Part III of the Constitution is described as theMagna Cartaof India. The Fundamental Rights are enshrined in Part III of the Constitution (Articles 12-35).