Why is it in the news?
- Recently, debates about circular migration had been in news.
About Circular Migration
- Circular migration involves people moving back and forth between a destination country and their country of origin based on the availability of employment. It is common among low-income groups seeking seasonal jobs in different locations.
Criteria for Circular Migrant
- Completing at least ‘two loops’ between two countries qualifies someone as a circular migrant.
- A circular migrant periodically moves between two countries for purposes of economic advancement, such as employment or business.
Characteristics of Circular Migration
- Temporary residence in the destination location.
- Multiple entries into the destination country.
- Freedom of movement between the country of origin and destination during the period of residence.
- Legal right to stay in the destination country.
- Protection of migrants’ rights.
- Healthy demand for temporary labour in the destination country.
Policy Challenges and Debates
- Migration, including circular migration, is a major policy issue globally.
- Brain Drain and competition for jobs are concerns for both origin and destination countries.
- Circular migration is seen as a balanced approach that benefits both sending and receiving nations.
Benefits of Circular Migration
- For the country of origin, circular migration can bring remittances that boost the domestic economy.
- Foreign capital inflow enhances infrastructure, job opportunities, and living standards.
- Brain circulation allows individuals to use their talents in both countries while contributing to remittances.
Challenges of Circular Migration in India
- Internal migration in India is often circular, with rural populations moving to urban areas for employment.
- Migration can lead to infrastructural challenges in urban areas and agrarian stagnation in rural areas.
- Circular migrants may face exploitation, language barriers, and job precarity in host states.
- The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the vulnerability of circular migrants.
- States should actively formulate policies to understand the extent of circular migration.
- Measures should be taken to protect the rights and welfare of circular migrants.
- Efforts should be made to integrate migrants into destination states.