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Why is it in the news?

  • Bihar is set to establish its second tiger reserve in Kaimur district, known as the Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary, by the end of 2023 or early 2024. The current tiger population in Bihar is 54.

More about the news

  • The State Forest Department is working to obtain approval from the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) to declare Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary as a tiger reserve.
  • The tiger population in the Valmiki Tiger Reserve has increased from 31 in 2018 to 54.
  • The need for a second tiger reserve arose because the Valmiki reserve had reached its capacity to manage tigers (approximately 50), but the current tiger count in Valmiki exceeded that number.

About Kaimur district

  • It has a diverse geographical landscape, including hilly areas (Kaimur plateau) and plains, and is home to various wildlife, including tigers, leopards, and chinkaras.
  • It has a substantial forest cover, with 1,134 sq km of forests, including 986 sq km in the Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • It has the highest green cover in Bihar at 34% and boasts the largest forested area in the state.
  • The district shares its borders with neighbouring states such as Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.
  • In the past, the Kaimur district was known as a safe haven for Maoists and a passage for them to enter neighbouring states.
Tiger Reserve

·       Tiger reserves in India consist of Core Areas and Buffer Areas. Core Areas have the legal status of a national park or sanctuary, focusing exclusively on tiger conservation, while Buffer Areas includes a mix of forest and non-forest land and follow an inclusive people-oriented agenda.

·       The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) oversees Project Tiger, which was established in India in 1973. NTCA is a statutory agency under the Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change.

·       Project Tiger was initiated to protect and conserve India’s national animal, the tiger. It monitors 54 tiger reserves in India and provides centralized support for tiger conservation efforts.

·       More than 70% of the world’s tiger population is found in India, which is home to 15 different species of wild cats, including tigers.

·       The most recent tiger census in India, conducted in 2018-19, estimated the tiger population at 2,967. This represents an annual growth rate of 6% compared to the 2006 census.

·       India’s tiger reserves are categorized into five zones: Shivalik Hills and Gangetic Plains, Central India and Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats, NE Hills and Brahmaputra Plains, and Sundarban.

·       The Ranipur Tiger Reserve in Chitrakoot, Uttar Pradesh, is the newest of India’s 54 Tiger Reserves, established on October 19, 2022.

·       The Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972, revised in 2006, empowers the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) to oversee wildlife conservation efforts in India.


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