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Armenia-Azerbaijan Dispute

Why is it in the news?

  • Recently, the Armenian separatist forces in Nagorno-Karabakh surrendered and agreed to a ceasefire following Azerbaijan’s offensive to restore its control over the territory.

About the Nagorno-Karabakh Region

  • Nagorno-Karabakh is a mountainous and heavily forested region located in the South Caucasus.
  • Under international law, it is recognized as part of Azerbaijan.
  • However, the majority of its population consists of ethnic Armenians who reject Azeri rule and have been in administrative control of Nagorno-Karabakh with support from Armenia since Azerbaijan’s troops were pushed out of the region following a war in the 1990s.
  • The region holds strategic significance due to its proximity to energy-rich Azerbaijan.
    • Azerbaijan has established gas and oil pipelines across the Caucasus to transport energy resources to Turkey and Europe.
      • Some of these pipelines pass near the conflict zone, coming within 16 km of the border.
    • In the event of an open war between Armenia and Azerbaijan, these pipelines could become targets, potentially disrupting energy supplies and leading to higher oil prices globally.

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