1. Home
  2. Blog
  3. UPSC

Amigos Daily Current Affairs [15-09-23]

1.1     2030 Global Renewable Energy Target

Why is it in the news?

  • The presidency of the 28th Conference of Parties (COP28) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), to be held in Dubai (November 30-December 12), has called for agreement on a global target of tripling renewable energy capacity from current levels by 2030.
  • The target is inspired by an International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) report.
  • The global installed capacity of RE sources for electricity in 2021 was 3026 GW, contributing 28% to total electricity generation.


  • The origin of the global RE target lacks transparency, and it aligns with an inequitable scenario.
  • Absolute projections of installed capacity do not consider growth in energy demand, favoring relative targets that are less risky.
  • Developing countries may face challenges in achieving the target without matching non-RE capacity, viable storage options, and sufficient grid development funding.
  • Key proponents of the global target, like the U.S. and the EU, lack absolute domestic RE targets.
  • Tripling RE capacity implies reaching about 9000 GW by 2030, mainly from solar and wind.
    • Meeting this target would require generating approximately 13,000 TWh of electricity from RE alone, making up 38% of global electricity production.
  • Electricity demand varies significantly across countries, with developing countries like China and India experiencing rapid growth, while the EU and the U.S. have slower growth.
    • For the U.S. and the EU to contribute significantly, they must phase out fossil fuel-based capacity.
  • Developing countries, especially India, should consider the target if developed countries commit to equitable domestic absolute targets under the Paris Agreement.
Renewable Energy: Renewable energy is defined as energy that comes from resources, which are naturally replenished on their own.The major renewable energy sources presently are Solar energy, Wind energy, Hydroelectric power (large and small units), Wave energy, Ocean thermal energy conversion and Tidal energy and Biomass power. IRENA: It is an intergovernmental organization, was officially founded in Bonn, Germany, in January 2009.Currently it has 167 members, India is the 77th Founding Member of IRENA.It has its headquarters in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.   India’s Renewable Energy Power Generation Targets: 500 GW Non-Fossil Fuel Based Energy by 2030: Announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi at COP26 summit.50% Electricity from Non-Fossil Fuel Sources by 2030: Pledged in India’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement.

1.2     Importance of Saudi Arabia to India

Why is it in the news?

Recently, Prince Mohammed visited New Delhi for the G20 Leaders’ Summit.

Historical ties

  • Diplomatic relations since 1947.
  • Key moments include the Delhi Declaration (2006), Riyadh Declaration (2010), and Crown Prince Mohammed’s visit in 2019.
Four pillars of the relationship

1) Economic Ties:

  • Bilateral trade valued at $52.76 billion in FY22-23.
  • Significant Indian corporate presence in Saudi Arabia.
  • Saudi investments in Indian startups and major projects like West Coast Refinery.
  • Over 2.4 million Indians contributing to Saudi development.
    • A bridge between the two countries.

2) Energy Cooperation:

  • Saudi Arabia crucial for India’s energy security.
  • Third-largest source of crude and petroleum products for India.

3) Defense Partnership:

  • Extensive naval cooperation and bilateral naval exercises.
    • AL – Mohed AL – Hindi is the bilateral naval exercise between India and Saudi Arabia. 
  • Collaboration in defense industries and capacity-building.

4) Security cooperation:

  • Emphasis on combating terrorism and its financing.
  • Rejecting terrorism for any reason and urging all states to dismantle terrorism infrastructure.
  • Commitment to Afghanistan’s security, stability, and inclusive government.

1.3     India’s Innovation and Technology Growth

Why is it in the news?

  • Currently, India is the world’s fifth-largest economy and aims to reach the third-largest economy soon.
  • However, it lags behind in innovation, science, and technology benchmarks.
  • Insufficient contribution from Indian academia and industry to national R&D.
  • Manufacturing hindered by constraints in land, labor, and capital, as well as trade policies.

Government Initiatives

  • The government has initiated reforms to promote innovation, including the Make in India and Invent in India initiatives.
  • The establishment of the National Research Foundation (NRF) is expected to play a crucial role in driving R&D across industries.
  • Three critical parameters for overhauling scientific institutions are proposed:
    • Prioritize merit and quality of human capital for staffing and administration, focusing on retaining premier talent and attracting talent from abroad.
    • Integrate teaching and research by fostering collaborations between government labs, universities, and science parks.
    • Implement a barbell strategy for research funding, supporting high-impact projects through collaboration between government agencies and industry.
  • Encourage moon-shot research by providing government funding while incentivizing entrepreneurial scientists to seek supplemental funding from industry.
  • Promote industry-government partnerships for blue sky research, drawing from successful global examples.
  • Recognize the importance of retaining talent, prioritizing merit in staffing, and incentivizing industry participation.
  • Address the cultural and software aspects of Indian science, emphasizing system design that fosters collegiality, eliminates hierarchical mindsets, eradicates cartelization, and encourages controlled risk-taking.
  • Emphasize the quality and motivations of individuals in the science field as essential for long-term outperformance.
  • Recognize the need for a shakeup in the existing system to align with India’s economic progress and national security.
Make in India
  • Make in India, the flagship program of the Government of India aspires to facilitate investment, foster innovation, enhance skill development, build best-in-class manufacturing infrastructure, protect the intellectual property, Make India digital, create healthy relationships with various countries, and provide employment opportunities.
  • “Make in India” had three stated objectives:
  • To increase the manufacturing sector’s growth rate to 12-14% per annum;
  • To create 100 million additional manufacturing jobs in the economy by 2022;
  • To ensure that the manufacturing sector’s contribution to GDP is increased to 25% by 2022 (later revised to 2025).

National Research Foundation (NRF) NRF

  • NRF is a proposed entity that will replace the Science and Engineering Research Board of India (SERB) and catalyze and channel interdisciplinary research for accelerating India’s ambitious development agenda, through impactful knowledge creation and translation.
  • NRF is one of the key recommendations of the National Education Policy (NEP), 2020.

1.4     National Judicial Data Grid portal

Why is it in the news?

  • Recently, the Supreme Court of India has joined the National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG) portal.
    • This inclusion completes the NJDG portal’s coverage of all three tiers of the Indian judiciary and is recognized as an innovation under the ease of doing business initiative.
  • This move aligns with the “open data policy” and provides real-time case data to the public.

National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG)

  • NJDG is a national repository of data related to cases across India’s courts.
  • Users can access information on case institution, disposal, and pendency by type, year, stage, and quorum with a click.
  • Benefits include increased coordination, informed decision-making, resource optimization, a single data source, and potential for high-quality research.
  • The NJDG is part of the e-Courts initiative and is recognized as an innovation in the ease of doing business initiative.
  • NJDG was developed by the National Informatics Centre in collaboration with the Supreme Court Registry’s computer cell.
  • Data available on the NJDG-SCI (Supreme Court of India) portal includes current pendency, filings, disposals, and cases before different Bench sizes.
e-Courts Mission Project
  • The e-Courts Mission Project is a nationwide initiative overseen and funded by the Department of Justice under the Ministry of Law and Justice.
  • Its objectives include:
  • Delivering efficient and time-bound citizen-centric services as outlined in the e-Court Project Litigant’s Charter.
  • Developing, installing, and implementing decision support systems within courts.
  • Automating processes to enhance transparency and accessibility of information for all stakeholders.
  • Boosting judicial productivity in terms of quality and quantity.
  • Making the justice delivery system more affordable, accessible, cost-effective, predictable, reliable, and transparent.

1.5     Government limits wheat stocks to control price rise and hoarding

Why is it in the news?

  • Recently, the Stock limits for wheat have been reduced for traders, wholesalers, retailers, big chain retailers, and processors in all States and Union Territories.
    • The revised stock limit is 2,000 Metric Tonnes (MT), down from the previous limit of 3,000 MT.
  • The move is a response to the artificial scarcity created by some individuals, leading to an increase in wheat prices.
  • Violators of stock limits may face punitive action under the Essential Commodities Act, 1955.

Essential Commodities Act 1955

    •  states that an “essential commodity” means a commodity specified in the Schedule of the Act.
  • inflation by allowing the Centre to enable control by state governments of trade in a wide variety of commodities.
  • :

1.6     Births and Deaths to be digitally registered

Why is it in the news?

  • All reported births and deaths in India will be digitally registered on the Centre’s portal starting from October 1.
  • Digital birth certificates will serve as a single document for various purposes, including admission to educational institutions, driving license applications, government jobs, passports, Aadhaar, voter enrollment, and marriage registration.

More about the news

  • This is a result of the Registration of Births and Deaths (Amendment) Act, 2023, which enables the issuance of digital birth certificates.
  • The Act also mandates the collection of Aadhaar numbers of parents and informants, if available, during birth registration.
  • The centralized database will update the National Population Register (NPR), ration cards, property registration, and electoral rolls.
    • NPR, originally collected in 2010 and updated in 2015, has a database of 119 crore residents and is a step toward the creation of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) as per the Citizenship Act.
  • States will be required to register births and deaths on the Centre’s Civil Registration System (CRS) portal and share the data with the Registrar-General and Census Commissioner.
  • As of March 31, Aadhaar has achieved a saturation rate of 93% for a projected population of 138.72 crore.
National Population Register (NPR)
  • NPR is a database containing a list of all usual residents of the country.
    • A usual resident for the purposes of NPR is a person who has resided in a place for six months or more and intends to reside there for another six months or more.
  • Its objective is to have a comprehensive identity database of people residing in the country.
  • It is generated through house-to-house enumeration during the “house-listing” phase of the Census.
National Register of Citizens (NRC)
  • According to Citizenship Rules 2003, NPR is the first step towards compilation of a National Register of Citizens (NRC).
    • After a list of residents is created (i.e., NPR), a nationwide NRC could go about verifying the citizens from that list.
  • However, unlike the NRC, the NPR is not a citizenship enumeration drive as it records even a foreigner staying in a locality for more than six months.
  • NRC is a register prepared after the conduct of the Census of 1951 in respect of each village, showing the houses or holdings in a serial order and indicating against each house or holding the number and names of persons staying therein.

1.7     The Chief Election Commissioner and Other Election Commissioners (Appointment, Conditions of Service and Term of Office) Bill, 2023

Why is it in the news?

  • Recently, the bill was introduced in Rajya Sabha and is listed for discussion in the special session of the parliament.


  • The change in service conditions raises concerns about potential erosion of the Election Commissioners’ authority and independence.
  • Former CECs and expert’s express concerns about the impact of downgrading the Election Commissioners’ service conditions on the independent character of the Election Commission and its ability to discipline the political class.
About the bill
  • The bill repeals the Election Commission (Conditions of Service of Election Commissioners and Transaction of Business) Act, 1991.
  • Composition of the Election Commission:
    • The Election Commission consists of the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and other Election Commissioners (ECs).
    • They are appointed by the President.
  • Selection Committee: The Selection Committee for appointing the Election Commission includes:
    • Chairperson: Prime Minister
    • Member: Leader of the Opposition
    • Member: Union Cabinet Minister nominated by the Prime Minister
  • The Chief Justice of India (CJI) is no longer part of the selection panel.
  • Search Committee: A Search Committee, led by the Cabinet Secretary, will prepare a panel of five persons for the Selection Committee’s consideration.
  • Qualification of CEC and ECs:
    • Eligible candidates must have held posts equivalent to the rank of Secretary to the central government.
    • They should possess expertise in managing and conducting elections.
  • Removal and Resignation:
    • The CEC can only be removed in a manner similar to that of a Supreme Court judge.
    • Removal involves an order of the President, based on a motion passed by both Houses of Parliament.
  • The motion requires a majority of the total membership of each House and at least two-thirds support from members present and voting.
  • An EC can only be removed upon the recommendation of the CEC.

1.8     Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY)

Why is it in the news?

  • Despite challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, Prime Minister Modi announced the Atmanirbhar Bharat package for the fisheries sector, allocating ₹20,050 crore for the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY), marking the largest-ever investment in Indian fisheries.
  • The government has recently announced an additional ₹6,000 crore investment in the fisheries sector, bringing the total investment to over ₹38,500 crore in the last nine years.

Analyzing PMMSY

  • PMMSY has focused on addressing critical gaps in the fisheries value chain, including fish production, productivity, quality, technology, post-harvest infrastructure, and marketing.
  • Strategic priority areas for PMMSY include marine fisheries, inland fisheries, fishermen’s welfare, infrastructure, post-harvest management, cold water fisheries, ornamental fisheries, aquatic health management, and seaweed cultivation.
  • PMMSY has encouraged technology adoption and entrepreneurial ventures in the fisheries sector, empowering young entrepreneurs, including women, in various regions of India.
  • The program has expanded fisheries to non-traditional areas, transforming saline wastelands into productive aquaculture zones in states like Haryana and Rajasthan.
  • PMMSY has facilitated the development of fish feed plants, hatcheries, research in genetic improvement, and domestication of aquatic species.
  • India is now among the world’s top three countries in fish and aquaculture production and is the largest shrimp exporter globally.
  • Indian fisheries production and export earnings are at all-time highs, with significant growth in shrimp production and seafood exports.
  • The partnership between the government and fishermen is strengthening, contributing to the development of the Blue Economy and addressing the concerns of the fishing community.
PMMSY: Aim is to bring about a blue revolution through sustainable and responsible development of the fisheries sector in India.To double the incomes of fishers and fish farmers, reducing post-harvest losses from 20-25% to about 10% and the generation of gainful employment opportunities in the sector. Blue Economy: It broadly refers to the use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods and jobs in a sustainable manner.
Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan: Vision of Prime Minister Narendra Modi:Make India a bigger and more important part of the global economy.Pursue efficient, competitive, and resilient policies.Strive for self-sustainability and self-generation.Atmanirbhar Bharat does not imply self-containment or isolation.It is not a protectionist approach.Policy Measures:Redefining the definition of MSMEs (Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises).Promoting private participation in various sectors.Increasing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the defence sector.Strong support in sectors like solar manufacturing.Slogans Associated:”Vocal for Local”: Encouraging the promotion and use of local products.”Local for Global”: Emphasizing the global potential of Indian products.”Make for World”: Promoting Indian manufacturing for global markets.

1.9     NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation)

Why is it in the news?

  • As per the Ministry of State for Electronics and Information Technology, all smartphones must support NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation) by the end of 2025.
    • 5G smartphones are required to support NavIC by January 1, 2025, while other phones must have this capability by December 2025.
  • The government is considering providing incentives for using Indian-made or designed NavIC-supporting chips in system designs, similar to incentives under the production-linked incentive (PLI) scheme for IT hardware.
  • In the automobile sector, it is mandatory to use GPS that utilizes NavIC chipsets, alongside other global navigation systems like GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, and QZSS.

About NavIC

  • NavIC is an independent navigation satellite system developed by ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization).
  • NavIC comprises eight satellites and covers the entire landmass of India, extending up to 1,500 km from its borders.
  • Applications of NavIC include public vehicle tracking, emergency alerts for fishermen in remote sea areas, and monitoring natural disasters.
  • The system supports national projects like public vehicle safety, power grid synchronization, real-time train information, and fishermen safety.
  • NavIC provides India with an indigenous and controlled positioning system, reducing reliance on foreign satellite systems.
  • It ensures that navigation services are not subject to withdrawal or denial in critical situations.
  • NavIC’s acceptance and India’s achievements in space, including Chandrayaan 3 and the Aditya L1 solar mission, demonstrate the country’s growing capabilities in the space sector.

1.10  Google’s latest antitrust trial in the US

Why is it in the news?

  • Recently, the US government has initiated a 10-week trial to investigate whether Google is abusing its dominance in the search engine market to eliminate competition and maintain a monopoly.
    • The trial is considered one of the most consequential trials over tech power in the modern internet era.

More about the news

  • The Department of Justice (DoJ) and 37 states allege that Google makes annual payments of $10 billion to companies like Apple and Mozilla Firefox to secure its position as the default search provider on smartphones and web browsers, thereby stifling competition.
  • Google denies the allegations, stating that it offers a superior product and that its agreements with other companies allow them to promote rivals like Microsoft’s Bing.
  • The trial will test the adaptability of current antitrust laws, particularly the Sherman Act of 1890, to 21st-century markets susceptible to monopolization.
  • The final decision rests with US District Court and could result in an injunction against Google if the DoJ prevails, possibly leading to the tech giant’s breakup.
  • Google has faced antitrust cases in Europe, India, and the US, with fines imposed in some cases.
  • India:
    • In India, the Competition Commission of India (CCI) ordered Google to change its anti-competitive practices in the Android ecosystem and fined it Rs 1,338 crore (approximately $161.95 million).
    • Google appealed the CCI’s decision to the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) but was largely unsuccessful, leading to a further appeal to India’s top court.
Competition Commission of India (CCI)
  • CCI is a statutory body operating under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.
  • Its primary role is to enforce the Competition Act, 2002.
  • The commission is composed of a chairperson and six members appointed by the Central Government.
  • Key objectives include eliminating practices detrimental to competition, promoting and sustaining competition, safeguarding consumer interests, and ensuring trade freedom in Indian markets.
About National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT)
  • It was constituted under Section 410 of the Companies Act, 2013 for hearing appeals against the orders of National Company Law Tribunal(s) (NCLT), with effect from 1st June 2016.
  • It is the Appellate Tribunal for hearing appeals against the orders passed by NCLT(s) under Section 61 of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC).
  • It is the Appellate Tribunal to hear and dispose of appeals against any direction issued or decision made or order passed by the Competition Commission of India (CCI) as per the amendment brought to Section 410 of the Companies Act, 2013 by Section 172 of the Finance Act, 2017.

Get free UPSC Updates straight to your inbox!

Get Updates on New Notification about APPSC, TSPSC and UPSC

Get Current Affairs Updates Directly into your Inbox

Discover more from AMIGOS IAS

Subscribe now to keep reading and get access to the full archive.

Continue reading